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Swift Build Status Cov Platform Dispatch

Unidirectional, transactional, operation-based Store implementation for Swift and SwiftUI


Store eschews MVC in favour of a unidirectional data flow. When a user interacts with a view, the view propagates an action to a store that hold the application's data and business logic, which updates all of the views that are affected.

This works especially well with SwiftUI's declarative programming style, which allows the store to send updates without specifying how to transition views between states.

  • Stores: Holds the state of your application. You can have multiple stores for multiple domains of your app.
  • Actions: You can only perform state changes through actions. Actions are small pieces of data (typically enums or structs) that describe a state change. By drastically limiting the way state can be mutated, your app becomes easier to understand and it gets easier to work with many collaborators.
  • Views: A simple function of your state. This works especially well with SwiftUI's declarative programming style.

Getting started


Yet another counter:

import SwiftUI
import Store

struct CounterModel { var count: Int }

struct CounterView: View {
  @ObservedObject var store = Store(model: CounterModel(count: 0))
  var body: some View {
    VStack {
      Text(String(describing: store.binding.count))
      HStack {
        Button("Increase") { store.binding.count += 1 }
        Button("Decrease") { store.binding.count -= 1 }

Yet another todo list:

final class Todo: Codable, Identifiable {
  let id = PushID.default.make()
  var text: String = "Untitled Todo"
  var done: Bool = false

final class TodoList: Codable {
  var todos: [Todo] = []

extension Store where M == TodoList {
  func addNewTodo() {
    mutate { $0.todos.append(Todo()) }
  func move(from source: IndexSet, to destination: Int) {
    mutate { $0.todos.move(fromOffsets: source, toOffset: destination) }
  func remove(todo: Todo) {
    mutate { model in 
      model.todos = model.todos.filter { $ != } 

// MARK: - Views

struct TodoView: View {
  @ObservedObject var store: CodableStore<Todo>
  let onRemove: () -> Void
  var body: some View {
    HStack {
      // Move handle.
      Image(systemName: "line.horizontal.3")
      // Text.
      if store.readOnlyModel.done {
      } else {
        TextField("Todo", text: $store.binding.text)
      // Mark item as done.
      Toggle("", isOn: $store.binding.done)
      // Remove task.
      Button("Remove", action: onRemove)

struct TodoListView: View {
  @ObservedObject var store = CodableStore(model: TodoList())
  var body: some View {
    List {
      // Todo items.
      ForEach(store.readOnlyModel.todos) { todo in
        TodoView(store: CodableStore(model: todo)) { store.remove(todo: todo) }
      .onMove(perform: store.move)
      // Add a new item.
      Button("New Todo", action: store.addNewTodo)


Stores contain the application state and logic. Their role is somewhat similar to a model in a traditional MVC, but they manage the state of many objects — they do not represent a single record of data like ORM models do. More than simply managing a collection of ORM-style objects, stores manage the application state for a particular domain within the application.

This allows an action to result in an update to the state of the store. After the stores are updated, they notify the observers that their state has changed, so the views may query the new state and update themselves.

struct Counter { var count = 0 }
let store = Store<Counter>(model: Counter())


An action represent an operation on the store that is cancellable and is performed transactionally on the Store.

Actions can be defined using an enum or a struct.

enum CounterAction: Action {
  case increase
  case decrease

  func mutate(context: TransactionContext<Store<Counter>, Self>) {
    defer {
      // Remember to always call `fulfill` to signal the completion of this operation.
    switch self {
    case .increase(let amount):
      context.update { $0.count += 1 }
    case .decrease(let amount):
      context.update { $0.count -= 1 }
  func cancel(context: TransactionContext<Store<Counter>, Self>) { }
struct IncreaseAction: Action {
  let count: Int

  func mutate(context: TransactionContext<Store<Counter>, Self>) {
    defer {
      // Remember to always call `fulfill` to signal the completion of this operation.
    context.mutate { $0.count += 1 }
  func cancel(context: TransactionContext<Store<Counter>, Self>) { }

Alternatively using a binding to change the store value (through store.binding) or calling store.mutate { model in } would implicitly create and run an action that is performed synchronously.

Button("Increase") { store.binding.count += 1 }


class Store<M>: ObservableObject, Identifiable

This class is the default implementation of the MutableStore protocol. A store wraps a value-type model, synchronizes its mutations, and emits notifications to its observers any time the model changes.

Model mutations are performed through Actions: These are operation-based, cancellable and abstract the concurrency execution mode. Every invokation of run(action:) spawns a new transaction object that can be logged, rolled-back and used to inspect the model diffs (see TransactionDiff).

It's recommendable not to define a custom subclass (you can use CodableStore if you want diffing and store serialization capabilities). Domain-specific functions can be added to this class by writing an extension that targets the user-defined model type. e.g.

 let store = Store(model: Todo())
 extension Store where M == Todo {
   func upload() -> Future<Void, Error> {
     run(action: TodoAction.uploadAndSynchronizeTodo, throttle: 1)


  • let modelStorage: M The associated storage for the model (typically a value type).

  • let binding: BindingProxy<M> Read-write access to the model through @Binding in SwiftUI. e.g. Toggle("...", isOn: $store.binding.someProperty). When the binding set a new value an implicit action is being triggered and the property is updated.


  • func notifyObservers() Notify the store observers for the change of this store. Store and CodableStore are ObservableObjects and they automatically call this function (that triggers a objectWillChange publlisher) every time the model changes. Note: Observers are always scheduled on the main run loop.

  • func performWithoutNotifyingObservers(_ perform: () -> Void) The block passed as argument does not trigger any notification for the Store observers. e.g. By calling reduceModel(transaction:closure:) inside the perform block the store won't pubblish any update.

Combine Stores

  • func makeChildStore<C>(keyPath: WritableKeyPath<M, C>) -> Store<C> Used to express a parent-child relationship between two stores. This is the case when it is desired to have a store (child) to manage to a subtree of the store (parent) model. CombineStore define a merge strategy to reconcile back the changes from the child to the parent. e.g.
struct Model { let items: [Item] }
let store = Store(model: Model())
let child = store.makeChildStore(keyPath: \.[0])


  • func transaction<A: Action, M>( action: A, mode: Executor.Strategy = default) -> Transaction<A> Builds a transaction object for the action passed as argument. This can be executed by calling the run function on it. Transactions can depend on each other's completion by calling the depend(on:) function. e.g.
let t1 = store.transaction(.addItem(cost: 125))
let t2 = store.transaction(.checkout)
let t3 = store.transaction(.showOrdern)
t2.depend(on: [t1])
t3.depend(on: [t2])
[t1, t2, t3].run()

Running Actions

  • func run<A: Action, M>(action: A, mode: Executor.Strategy = default, throttle: TimeInterval = default) -> Future<Void, Error> Runs the action passed as argument on this store and returns a future that is resolved when the action execution has completed.

  • func run<A: Action, M>(actions: [A], mode: Executor.Strategy = default) -> Future<Void, Error> Runs all of the actions passed as argument sequentially. This means that actions[1] will run after actions[0] has completed its execution, actions[2] after actions[1] and so on.


  • func register(middleware: Middleware) Register a new middleware service. Middleware objects are notified whenever a transaction running in this store changes its state.

  • func unregister(middleware: Middleware) Unregister a middleware service.

class CodableStore<M: Codable>: Store<M>

A Store subclass with serialization capabilities. Additionally a CodableStore can emits diffs for every transaction execution (see the lastTransactionDiff pubblisher). This can be useful for store synchronization (e.g. with a local or remote database).

  • static func encode<V: Encodable>(model: V) -> EncodedDictionary Encodes the model into a dictionary.

  • static func encodeFlat<V: Encodable>(model: V) -> FlatEncoding.Dictionary Encodes the model into a flat dictionary. The resulting dictionary won't be nested and all of the keys will be paths. e.g. {user: {name: "John", lastname: "Appleseed"}, tokens: ["foo", "bar"] turns into

   user/name: "John",
   user/lastname: "Appleseed",
   tokens/0: "foo",
   tokens/1: "bar"

This is particularly useful to synchronize the model with document-based databases (e.g. Firebase).




A collection of Store usage scenarios.

Serialization and Diffing


struct MySerializableModel: Codable {
var count = 0
var label = "Foo"
var nullableLabel: String? = "Bar"
var nested = Nested()
var array: [Nested] = [Nested(), Nested()]
  struct Nested: Codable {
  var label = "Nested struct"

let store = SerializableStore(model: TestModel(), diffing: .async)
store.$lastTransactionDiff.sink { diff in
  // diff is a `TransactionDiff` obj containing all of the changes that the last transaction has applied to the store's model.

A quick look at the TransactionDiff interface:

public struct TransactionDiff {
  /// The set of (`path`, `value`) that has been **added**/**removed**/**changed**.
  /// e.g. ``` {
  ///   user/name: <added ⇒ "John">,
  ///   user/lastname: <removed>,
  ///   tokens/1:  <changed ⇒ "Bar">,
  /// } ```
  public let diffs: [FlatEncoding.KeyPath: PropertyDiff]
  /// The identifier of the transaction that caused this change.
  public let transactionId: String
  /// The action that caused this change.
  public let actionId: String
  /// Reference to the transaction that cause this change.
  public var transaction: AnyTransaction
  /// Returns the `diffs` map encoded as **JSON** data.
  public var json: Data

/// Represent a property change.
/// A change can be an **addition**, a **removal** or a **value change**.
public enum PropertyDiff {
  case added(new: Codable?)
  case changed(old: Codable?, new: Codable?)
  case removed

Diff output:

▩ INFO (-LnpwxkPuE3t1YNCPjjD) UPDATE_LABEL [0.045134 ms]
    · label: <changed ⇒ (old: Foo, new: Bar)>,
    · nested/label: <changed ⇒ (old: Nested struct, new: Bar)>,
    · nullableLabel: <removed>

Combining Stores

As your app logic grows could be convient to split store into smaller one, still using the same root model. This can be achieved by using the makeChildStore(keyPath:) API.

struct App {
  struct Todo {
    var name: String = "Untitled"
    var description: String = "N/A"
    var done: Bool = false
  var todos: [Todo] = []

// This action targets a Store<Todo>...
struct TodoActionMarkAsDone: Action {
  func reduce(context: TransactionContext<Store<App.Todo>, Self>) {
    defer { context.fulfill() }
    context.reduceModel { $0.done = true }

// ..While this one the whole collection Store<[Todo]>
struct TodoListActionCreateNew: Action {
  let name: String
  let description: String
  func reduce(context: TransactionContext<Store<Array<App.Todo>>, Self>) {
    defer { context.fulfill() }
    let new = Root.Todo(name: name, description: description)
    context.reduceModel {

let appModel = App()
let rootStore = Store(model: appModel)

let todoListStore = rootStore.makeChildStore(keyPath: \.todos) TodoListActionCreateNew(name: "New", decription: "New"), mode: .sync)

let todoStore = rootStore.makeChildStore(keyPath: \.[0]) TodoActionMarkAsDone(), mode: .sync)

This is a good strategy to prevent passing down the whole application store as a dependency when not needed (e.g. maybe your datasource just need the TodoList store and your cell the single-value Todo store).


Dispatch takes advantage of Operations and OperationQueues and you can define complex dependencies between the operations that are going to be run on your store.

Chaining actions [
  CounterAction.increase(amount: 1),
  CounterAction.increase(amount: 1),
  CounterAction.increase(amount: 1),
]) { context in
  // Will be executed after all of the transactions are completed.

Actions can also be executed in a synchronous fashion. CounterAction.increase(amount: 1), strategy: .mainThread) CounterAction.increase(amount: 1), strategy: .sync)

Complex Dependencies

You can form a dependency graph by manually constructing your transactions and use the depend(on:) method.

let t1 = store.transaction(.addItem(cost: 125))
let t2 = store.transaction(.checkout)
let t3 = store.transaction(.showOrdern)
t2.depend(on: [t1])
t3.depend(on: [t2])
[t1, t2, t3].run()

Throttling transactions

Transactions can express a throttle delay.

func calledOften() {, throttle: 0.5)

Tracking a transaction state

Sometimes it's useful to track the state of a transaction (it might be useful to update the UI state to reflect that). CounterAction.increase(amount: 1)).$state.sink { state in
  switch(state) {
  case .pending: ...
  case .started: ...
  case .completed: ...

Checking the diff state of a specific property after a transaction

sink = store.$lastTransactionDiff.sink { diff in
  diff.query { $ }.isChanged() // or .isRemoved(), .isAdded()

Dealing with errors

struct IncreaseAction: Action {
  let count: Int

  func reduce(context: TransactionContext<Store<Counter>, Self>) {
    // Remember to always call `fulfill` to signal the completion of this operation.
    defer { context.fulfill() }
    // The operation terminates here because an error has been raised in this dispatch group.
    guard !context.rejectOnPreviousError() { else return }
    // Kill the transaction and set TransactionGroupError.lastError.
    guard store.model.count != 42 { context.reject(error: Error("Max count reach") }
    // Business as usual...
    context.reduceModel { $0.count += 1 }


let cancellable: AnyCancellable = CounterAction.increase(amount: 1)).eraseToAnyCancellable();
▩ 𝙄𝙉𝙁𝙊 (-Lo4riSWZ3m5v1AvhgOb) INCREASE [✖ canceled]

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